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stainless steel is an iron-based alloy with various alloy elements. The main alloying element that provides corrosion resistance is chrome (Cr). Stainless steel typically also has carbon (C), silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) as additives. Many stainless steels contain nickel (Ni) as an alloying element, which improves the corrosion resistance and heat resistance of steel; Molybdenum (Mo) and niobium (Nb), which increase the working temperature of the steel; Cobalt (Co), which increases the wear resistance of the material. The main advantage and the most important quality of stainless steel is its ability to withstand corrosion, which is rightly thanks to chromium.
The composition of a rustproof alloy differs in the chromium content: the more chromium, the stronger the "rustproof" quality of the alloy. Therefore, the amount of chrome in stainless steel is always at least 10.5%. What is unique about chrome? Especially his reactions with oxygen! In the presence of oxygen, a thin layer of insoluble chromium oxide forms on the surface of the stainless steel product. The oxide layer forms a rustproof alloy and prevents the elements of the alloy from chemically reacting and oxidizing with the medium. And if the surface of the product is damaged, the film is restored by the reaction of chromium with oxygen in the environment. The following standard products are made of stainless steel: stainless tube, sheet, rustproof strip, rustproof corner, rustproof mesh, rustproof hexagon, etc.
Stainless steel strips - for the production of cutting tools: scissors, knives, etc. Stainless steel has high corrosion protection properties, so that this rolling form has a long service life and does not require frequent maintenance. The strip was also used in construction, architecture, interior design for the decoration of suspended ceilings, columns.
Stainless round rod is used in the aerospace, mechanical engineering, chemical and food industries and is a rod with a circular cross-section. The diameter can be 10 to 150 mm or more.
Stainless sheet metal has found widespread use not only in construction, but also in the transportation and energy sectors. The thickness can be different: 0.5-75 mm. The product is of high quality and has excellent corrosion protection properties.
Stainless steel pipe - the most popular metal product. Depending on the manufacturing method and the technical parameters, all round stainless pipes are divided into: seamless and welded. A distinction is again made between longitudinally welded and spiral welded tubes. High-alloy steel alloys, which are alloyed with nickel, molybdenum, titanium and other elements, serve as the material for the production of this type of metal product.
- Corrosion-resistant round tubes are divided into surface qualities: matt, polished and mirror-smooth. With the exception of the appearance of the surface, all differ in price indicators and usage properties. Thanks to various finishing methods, the possibilities for choosing this type of product are expanded.
- Pipes are classified according to their intended use in: special and general-purpose use.
- Corrosion-resistant round tubes on the surface are divided into: matt, polished and mirror-smooth. With the exception of the appearance of the surface, all differ in price indicators and consumer properties. Thanks to various finishing methods, the options for choosing this type of rental are expanding.
- You differentiate according to the operating characteristics of tube rolling: special and general purpose.
- Depending on the wall thickness - thin-walled and thick-walled products.
All products are labeled. The marking of the stainless steel pipe with a circular cross-section corresponds to the marking of the steel alloy from which it is made. The first digit in the mark indicates the percentage (in hundredths) of carbon steel. The letters also indicate alloy additives, and the numbers indicate their percent equivalent in tenths. For example, let's examine the labeling of the most popular steel for the production of stainless steel tubes and many other rolled products - 08X18H10 (analogous to AISI 304). The steel composition comprises 0.08% carbon, chromium 18% and nickel 10%.
The application area of this type of rolled steel is incredibly large: medical, chemical and energy industries (production of pipelines, tanks), food industry. Stainless steel pipe - a material for machine tool construction, the production of parts for furnace devices, utilities (heating, water supply). Stainless metal pipes are increasingly being used in construction. Auto and instrument making is not possible without stainless steel pipes. Such a tube is also used as a raw material for the manufacture of silencers, elements of metallurgical furnaces, heat exchange devices, electrodes and parts of fire furnaces. The most popular stainless steel tube made of aisi 304, aisi 321, aisi 430, aisi 201, aisi 316 and aisi 309.
Stainless steel wire is a type of metal roller that is actively used for various purposes. The wire has a circular cross-section, although there is a wire in the form of an oval hexagon or square. The diameter of the stainless wire ranges from 0.2 mm to 14 mm. The main materials for the production of wire are cast iron, steel, titanium, copper, nickel, zinc, aluminum and their alloys. Corrosion-resistant wire is used as a blank for the production of springs, ropes, nets, electrodes, cables, etc.
Soft and hard stainless wire on spools is widely used in a variety of industries and economics. It is used:
- for welding - thanks to its properties, seams welded with stainless steel are reliable and have a long service life;
- in the chemical industry - in the manufacture of devices that operate in a chemically aggressive environment;
- in business - for the production of a large number of networks and filters.
Welding wire - for welding all types (automatic, mechanized and manual), for surface treatment and for the production of electrodes. Welding wire is divided into the following categories: low carbon wire (can be copper-plated and not copper-plated); Alloy wire (copper-plated and not copper-plated); high alloy wire.
Stainless steel strips - a thin, long, rectangular plate made of stainless steel. It is very easy to work with and enables material consumption to be calculated with minimal waste accuracy.
In addition, the stainless steel strip, like stainless steel sheets, is resistant to aggressive environments and temperatures. If the stainless steel strip is made of Aisi 304 steel, this is still a nice look and good weldability. The stainless steel strip is equipped with quite good indicators of wear resistance and strength. The raw material for the manufacture of a stainless angle, a stainless pipe, stainless channels and various stainless parts for the food, chemical and automotive industries is a stainless strip.
Stainless steel angle - a kind of shaped metal that is rolled from a "G" shaped stainless steel mold. The corrosion-resistant angle can be isosceles and isosceles.
Isosceles angle - two sides of the angle are the same size (width of the legs). Unequal legs - different. Stainless steel angles are either curved or rolled. Curved shapes with wall thicknesses of up to 2 mm cannot withstand high loads and can therefore only be used to a limited extent. Due to its low weight, every decorative rust-free angle is suitable for facade and covering work in new or reconstructed buildings.
Hot-rolled billets with side thicknesses from 3 mm differ in the strength properties and the possible use in loaded projects. Corners withstand aggressive operating conditions and therefore allow contact with moisture, alkalis and acids. They also tolerate temperature differences, except for the brittleness of steel. They are therefore suitable for the production of parts in the automotive and machine tool industries. Active in companies in the food, chemical and medical industries.
Stainless hexagon - a bar with six equal surfaces in cross section. It is made of stainless steel by hot rolling or cold calibration. The size of this product is determined by the diameter of the circle inscribed in the hexagon and is usually between 3 mm and 100 mm. The hexagon serves as the basis for the production of connecting elements, nuts, bolts and various machine parts. Stainless hexagon is particularly in demand in high-rise construction, where the standards preclude the use of materials with lower reliability.
Corrosion-resistant square - a bar with a full profile and a square cross-section. The most common types of steel, AISI321, AISI304, AISI316, are used to make a stainless steel square.
The dimensions of the stainless square can range from 5 mm to 250 mm. Its use is widespread in the space industry, in aircraft construction and in the chemical industry. Recently the AISI 304 stainless steel square was used for the interior of houses, yachts and other design solutions. Due to the properties of stainless steel, the square has a very high corrosion resistance and can be used at high and low temperatures in various aggressive environments.
Stainless steel electrodes are consumables that are used to weld high-alloy steels with special properties. These products are made of stainless wire with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm, which is coated with a special composition that ensures the required thermal heating of the connected surfaces. Various types of alloy steel can be welded with such stainless electrodes.
The main advantages of stainless steel are:
- Products gain strength. They become more reliable and can have a long lifespan of more than ten years.
- Heat resistance. Products can withstand temperature changes and will withstand high temperatures.
- Products become resistant to environmental conditions.
- Products are made from environmentally friendly materials.
- Products are attractive in terms of their external properties.
- Products are not subject to rust and deposits.
Today, stainless steel, along with glass and some other synthetic materials, is an almost indispensable material for the manufacture of devices for processing, storing and transporting food.
The stainless steel grades used in the food industry are AISI 304 and AISI 316, steels with a large number of components in the alloy are rarely required. The good appearance of the surface is very important. A standard 2B surface is sufficient for this, but polishing is sometimes required.
Stainless steel is an ideal material for kitchen utensils. Steel is a material associated with a high standard of living, and therefore its use in daily life will increase as the standard of living increases.
CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY:
Almost all containers, tanks, reactors, pipes and other devices in the chemical industry are made of austenitic stainless steel. The minimum permissible mark is AISI 316L, steels with a molybdenum content of up to 6% are often used. Choosing a stainless steel grade is a difficult task and requires in-depth knowledge.
Pulp and paper industry:
Most of the devices used in the paper and pulp industry are made of AISI 316 steel with a molybdenum content of 3-6%. Modern companies and factories in this industry use 3000-5000 tons of stainless steel per year.
Today, electricity is generated worldwide by burning coal, oil or gas. Stainless steel is also required here.
Modern society tries not to pollute the environment. Old factories and power plants are decommissioned or converted. New plants are built in accordance with environmental requirements. The consumable is stainless steel.
TRANSPORT MACHINE CONSTRUCTION:
The need for goods and materials has increased significantly recently. To ensure maximum load security during transport, special containers are required.
The steel grade AISI 316L is used for their production. The transportation industry is a huge consumer market for stainless steel.