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One of the most popular steel grades is AISI 304. The steel of this grade belongs to the austenitic group. The austenitic group is characterized by high density and ductility as well as resistance to corrosion and temperature changes. The carbon content in stainless steel of this brand does not exceed 0.08%, while the coefficient of chromium and nickel varies between 18 and 20% and 8 and 10.5%.
The AISI marking system was developed at the American Iron and Steel Institute and is one of the most widely used marking systems worldwide. It is used to label products and raw materials for import into countries in Asia and Eastern Europe as well as for national systems.
The type of AISI 304 steel is characterized by the presence of a thin layer of chrome oxide on the surface. This layer reliably protects the product against corrosion, even under the influence of aggressive chemicals, food essences, water, soil, sudden changes in temperature, etc. In contrast to other types of steel, AISI 304 stainless steel is welded without restrictions. AISI 304 is a stainless steel with a low carbon content. Due to the versatility of its physical properties, this type of steel is one of the most popular. AISI 304 steel is used to manufacture devices that are used in the catering, food and chemical industries.
- C 0.08% - the carbon content in the alloy is 0.08%. Carbon is the most important element in steel, it increases its strength, gives the metal good hardness.
- Cr 18.0 - 20.0% - the chromium content in the alloy is 18.0 - 20.0%. Chrome is a gray and white shiny carbide. Chromium affects the hardenability of steel, gives the alloy anti-corrosion properties and increases its wear resistance.
- Mn 2.0% - the manganese content in the alloy is 2.0%. Manganese is used in steel production. Can increase the hardness of steel. Steels with a significant manganese content are used to make various durable things - rails, safes and so on.
- NI 8.0 - 10.5% - nickel content in the alloy - 8.0 - 10.5%. Nickel increases the corrosion resistance of steel and can easily increase the strength.
- Si 1.00% - the silicon content in the alloy is 1.00%. Silicon increases the strength and durability of steel. Like manganese, it makes steel more stable and reliable.
- P 0.045% - the phosphorus content in the alloy is 0.045%. Phosphorus refers to harmful technological impurities in steels and alloys. Increasing the content even by a fraction of a percent, which increases strength, also increases fragility. The harmful effects of phosphorus are particularly pronounced with an increased carbon content. The limits of the phosphorus content as technological contamination are 0.025 ... 0.045%.
- S 0.03% - The sulfur content in the alloy is 0.03%. Like phosphorus, sulfur refers to harmful technological impurities in steels and alloys. Increasing the sulfur content significantly reduces the mechanical and physicochemical properties of steels, especially ductility, toughness, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance. The limits of the sulfur content as technological contamination are 0.035 ... 0.06%.
The presence and such treatment of such a percentage of alloying elements give this metal the urgently needed and useful properties.
Useful properties :
- Long-term resistance to high or low temperatures. The range of experimentally obtained permissible temperatures ranges from minus 200 ° C to plus 650 ° C.
- High resistance to prolonged exposure to aggressive environments (salt water, acidic and alkaline solutions). That means good corrosion resistance.
- Weak magnetization. This can be achieved by creating a special structure and processing methods.
- Improved weldability
- Increased strength
- Good ductility of class 304 steels (AISI), which enables successful forming and bending.
- High resistance to oxidation.
- Almost perfect prevention of contamination of products stored in containers made of this steel.
- Excellent aesthetics and easy cleaning after applying the dishes.
- Wide range of applications.
- Other advantages include a long service life for the products made from this metal and low operating costs.
Steel manufacturers generally divide the brand into three main classes (qualities) based on their ability to pull:
- AISI 304 - main variety
- AISI 304 DDQ (normal and deep drawing) - Degree of deep drawing
- AISI 304 DDS (Extra Deep Drawing) - Extra Deep Drawing Grade
If the deep drawing of the press is clean, the workpiece is not "braked" and the material can flow freely in the tools. In practice, this is very rare. For example, there is always a stretch-forming element when drawing household items.
The properties of the sheet material during deep drawing are described by the limit coefficient of drawing - LDR (the ratio of the largest possible diameter of the sample up to the point of breakage to the diameter of the press).
Physical properties AISI 304
- Density 8.00 g / cm³
- Melting point 1450 ° C.
- Thermal expansion 17.2 x10-6 / K
- Modulus of elasticity 193 GPa
- Thermal conductivity 16.2 W / mK
- Electrical resistance 0.072 x 10-6 ΩМ
Mechanical properties AISI 304
- Compressive strength 210 MPa
- Yield strength 210 MPa min
- Tensile strength 520 to 720 MPa
- Tension 45% min
Other names AISI 304
1.4301, SUS304, S30400, 304S15, 304S16, 304S31, EN58E
The main forms of delivery are: AISI 304 sheet, AISI 304 strips, AISI 304 rod, AISI 304 pipe, AISI 304 fittings and flanges. This type of steel is used for the manufacture of prefabricated and welded metal structures, components of pipe connectors and household appliances. For example, fencing balconies and stairs, kitchen appliances, car exhaust systems.
AISI 304 steel in the form of a sheet is divided into cold-rolled and hot-rolled material, which is determined by the manufacturing process. Flat rolled products are sold as sheets / plates and coils. The surface is determined by the processing method and can be matt, polished, mirror-smooth. AISI 304 sheet metal is used to manufacture electrically welded pipes, cutters and building structures. It is not exposed to corrosion in places with scratches or other mechanical damage. Capacities produced from this are used for the storage and transport of products in the food and chemical industries (weak chemical reagents).
AISI 304 stainless steel can be round, square or rectangular in the form of a tube . The manufacturing method divides the tubes into electrically welded and seamless tubes. As with flat products, the appearance of the surface depends on the processing method: matt, polished, mirror-smooth.
The stainless steel band AISI 304 is the most popular on the market. AISI rolled steel is resistant to temperature changes, has increased strength, ductility and elasticity and is well resistant to oxidation. Because of its affordable cost and good performance, stainless steel strip is widely used in industry and construction.
Round material made of stainless steel wheel AISI 304 is manufactured in conventional, high or high precision. The surface of the product can be matt, polished or mirror-smooth. Depending on the length, long products are distinguished from measured, multiple, measured and unmeasured lengths. The product specifications correspond to the domestic and foreign quality standards. Round material AISI 304 has high strength, corrosion resistance and ductility. Rolled products made of austenitic steels are easy to weld and suitable for mechanical processing. Round material AISI 304 is used in construction for the manufacture of structures and connecting elements as well as in mechanical engineering as part of mechanisms. It produces various devices for the food and chemical industries. It is successfully used under conditions of aggressive environmental influences, for example in sea water.
The 304 stainless flanges are an important part of the pipeline, which is intended to establish a strong and extremely reliable connection of the stainless pipe with the pipe connectors or with the technical devices of the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
Flanges for stainless pipes have several advantages:
- can be installed and dismantled frequently and immediately, without significant damage and defects occurring;
- Providing a high degree of sealing in butt joints with the possibility of further tightening;
- possess high strength and wear resistance;
- applicable in piping systems under high pressure (10 - 100 atm);
- have a wide range of through holes.
Fittings made of 304 - parts for connections, branches, pipe turning, branching of pipes and transitions to other diameters. Straight fittings for pipe connections with the same diameter and transition fittings for pipe connections with different diameters. Stainless steel fittings are used for the installation of various pipes. Stainless steel welded connectors are the most popular and necessary equipment in production. The unique design helps them withstand large loads, various temperature changes and pressures.
Types of weld fittings:
- Stainless curves
- Stainless Tees
- Stainless cross
- Stainless flanges
- Stainless transitions
- Stainless caps
These stainless fittings are installed by welding on pipes. The only difference between seamless and galvanically welded is the manufacturing method. The rustproof welded connection has the following purpose:
- Branch of the piping system
- Change the way of working fluids in pipes
- Connection of different pipe diameters
The following are manufactured from AISI 304 steel : chemical devices, bunkers, cooling coils, cryogenic vessels, dairy equipment, evaporators, cutlery, dishes, equipment for the food industry, surgical equipment, ship equipment and fittings for core ships, filter screens for oil wells and cooling devices, paper industry, Pressure vessels, fittings, valves, feed drums, pipes, dyeing, textile equipment, tanks and containers for a variety of liquids and solids, industrial plants in the mining, chemical, cryogenic, food, milk and pharmaceutical industries.